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France, like all other EU countries, will ban the sale of internal combustion engine cars from 2035. However, there is currently no precise target for the number of electric vehicles on the road in France in the coming decades. However, at the end of November 2022, the government announced a target of 2 million vehicles produced in France in 2030, as well as financial support to the automotive industry of 100 million euros to complete the sector's technological transition to electric vehicles. In this context, even in the absence of a clear target, it seems relevant to monitor the evolution of the French electric car fleet.
According to the Avere France registration barometer, at the end of May 2023, there were 1,278,394 rechargeable vehicles in France, of which 805,310 were 100% electric. The other 473,084 vehicles are plug-in hybrids. In the available statistics, 100% electric vehicles are defined not only as electric passenger cars, but also as commercial vehicles. Commercial vehicles are not designed for passenger transport but for the transport of goods. However, they are still light vehicles of less than 3.5 tonnes. Passenger cars are cars intended for the transport of passengers with a maximum of 8 seats in addition to the driver's seat.
The development of the plug-in vehicle fleet can also be monitored by the number of new registrations per month. The registration barometer data allows a distinction to be made between 100% electric passenger cars and 100% electric commercial vehicles. In May 2023, registrations of new 100% electric passenger cars accounted for 15.6% of market share, with 22,667 registrations. Among 100% electric passenger cars, Tesla's Model Y accounted for the highest number of registrations (2,709 new registrations), followed by the Fiat 500 (2,601 registrations) and the Peugeot 208 (1,914 registrations).
According to the National barometer of charging infrastructures open to the public, developed by the Ministry for Ecological Transition with Areve-France using data from GIREVE, there were 100,596 charging points open to the public in France on 31 May 2023, including 18,628 in the Paris region. 54% of charging points have a power rating of between 7.4 and 22 kW, and 33% less than 7.4 kW. Charging points with a capacity of 22 kW or more account for 14% of all charging points open to the public.
On the website of the Ministry of Ecological Transition and Territorial Cohesion and the Ministry of Energy Transition, there is a mention of a target of 100,000 charge points open to the public by 2023 and 7 million public and private charge points by 2030, without specifying the breakdown between public and private charge points for the latter. The rollout of chargepoints over the past 12 months has accelerated sharply, enabling the target of 100,000 public chargepoints in France to be reached by the end of May 2023. Enedis, the French distribution network operator, estimates that there will be a total of 1,400,135 charge points (private, public and business) in France by the end of the first quarter of 2023.
From the data on public charging points and the stock of rechargeable vehicles, it is possible to calculate the number of rechargeable vehicles - total, 100% electric only or hybrids only - per public charging point. In May 2023, there were about 8 100% electric vehicles per public charging point in France. However, this figure may hide potential geographical disparities, as the distribution of public charging points in a département does not necessarily correspond perfectly to the stock of rechargeable vehicles in the same département.